Primary Science – Adaptations Topic
Choosing the Correct Adaptations
This science revision note aims to help your child:
– analyse the functions of each adaptation (Having stripes does not always mean blending in with the surroundings. See detailed explanations below).
– remember the functions of each adaptation. There are important scientific keywords that your child needs to know.
But before you read on, you might want to download this entire revision notes in PDF format to print it out for your child, or to read it later.
This will be delivered to your email inbox.
The diagram below shows Fish X.
Fish X has a flat, disc-like body and a small, pointed mouth. It has a large dark spot surrounded by a white ring near its tail, which resembles an eye. It also has a black vertical stripe running down its real eye.
Fish X lives in shallow coral reefs or sea grass beds. It feeds on sea animals that sometimes hide in tiny gaps between the sea grass or the corals reefs. It is eaten by larger fish which attack it by aiming for its head, the most critical body part.
Based on the information above, which of the following correctly describes the function(s) of Fish X’s adaptations to help it to survive?
What did you notice after reading this question?
There’s so much information!
You MUST analyse the question and understand the living conditions that Fish X is in.
With so much information provided, this is the opportunity to highlight the important clues so you don’t miss them out.
Now, let’s answer this important question: What is survival?
Many students only remember this: to escape from predators.
In fact, it is MORE than that.
To survive, it means the following:
– To be able to find/catch food or prey.
– To reduce the chance of being eaten by predators.
– To reproduce.
– To survive the harsh environment (e.g. how do living organisms adapt when the temperature of the surroundings is too high or there is a lack of water in the habitat?).
Let’s go through each option to determine if it is correct.
The shape of a fish helps it move through its habitat. Fish X lives in shallow coral reefs or sea grass beds.
Its flattened, disc-like body allows it to move around easily without bumping into rocks, reefs and sea grasses.
Fish X can move around easily around its habitat. Hence, option A is correct.
The mouth size and shape of a fish indicate what type of food it eats, and how it catches its prey. Fish X feeds on small sea creatures that sometimes hide in crevices / tiny openings. Its small, pointed mouth helps it to reach into tiny openings between the sea grasses or the coral reefs to catch its prey.
The purpose of the small mouth is NOT to prevent choking.
Thus, option B is wrong.
Options C and D
Fish X has a large dark spot surrounded by a white ring near its tail. This dark spot acts as a fake eye to scare away the predators.
Also, take note that there are black stripes on the fish’s head and the fish’s body.
Both these adaptations (dark spot near its tail and black stripes) work together to make predators mistake the fake eye for a real eye. The predator will then attack the tail end of Fish X because it thinks that that is where the head is.
Why do fish X want the predator to attack its tail?
Do remember that the question clearly states this: It is eaten by larger fish which attack it by aiming for its head, the most critical body part.
We then infer that attacking fish X’s tail increases its chance of survival.
Since the tail is a less critical body part, Fish X would have a greater chance of escaping the predator even though it is injured.
Option C is correct.
Fish X also has a black vertical stripe running down its real eye. The function of the black stripe is to make the real eye less visible. It does NOT help Fish X blend in with the coral reefs and sea grass.
Option D is wrong.
FINALLY, choose the correct answer.
The answer is 2 (A and C only).
What did we learn from this revision note?
– The explanations are related to the survival (increasing chance of survival) of the animals.
– We cannot assume the function of the stripes on the fish is to blend in with the surroundings.
There’s MORE information that we need to use (stripes on the actual eye of fish X and eye spot on its tail so that predators will attack the fishtail instead of its head. Do see the detailed explanations for options C and D).
Additional learning material for this topic
Do read another question on adaptation (choosing the right concepts) here >>> https://scienceshifu.com/psle-science-adaptations-topic-choosing-the-right-concepts/
You can download this revision note so your child can revise them anytime.
This will be delivered to your email inbox.
Click here for other primary science revision notes >>> https://scienceshifu.com/primary-3-and-primary-4-science-revision-notes/
Click here for other primary science revision notes >>> https://scienceshifu.com/primary-5-science-revision-notes/
Click here for other primary science revision notes >>> https://scienceshifu.com/primary-6-science-revision-notes/
Purchase this P3 P4 Science Revision Guidebook for your child
Included inside this ebook:
– Over 120 pages of detailed science concepts provided
– 14 challenging exam-based questions for your child to apply the science concepts.
– Detailed explanation videos of 6 exam-based questions
Click on the button below to find out more about this ebook
Enrol your child to
the All-In-One ‘Eureka!’ Program
When you sign up for the All-In-One ‘Eureka!’ Program, your child receives the following:
- Live Zoom Classes conducted by our passionate teachers.
- EdaptIQ™ – a smart digital assessment book (An adaptive learning platform to customise quizzes and practices to suit your child’s strengths and weaknesses).
- 24/7 homework help – Simply take a picture of the question that your child is unsure of and Whatsapp our homework helpline. Our team of science specialists will reply within 1 day.
Click on the button below to find out more about our program
Join the ScienceShifu Channel to get the latest learning tips.
Benefits of joining ScienceShifu on Telegram:
– Be the first to receive science revision notes from us
– Receive special promotions on all our online courses.
Click on the button below to join the ScienceShifu channel:
Follow the ScienceShifu Instagram Channel to learn more science concepts
Benefits of joining Instagram:
– Watch out for interesting posts from ScienceShifu explaining science concepts
– Short videos where I will be going through past year exam questions
Click on the button below to follow the ScienceShifu Instagram Channel:
Talk again soon!
Andy Ling – Founder of ScienceShifu.com
Guiding your child to be the master of science concepts
Download our free revision notes to help your child prepare for the crucial exams.
Be part of our mailing list to receive the latest offers and learning tips from us.